Week 4: Ethnomethodology 2

Week 4: Ethnomethodology 2

“Ethnomethodology 2”
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Summaries

  • Week 4 > Ethnomethodology 2 > Part 1 | Homework 2 Review
  • Week 4 > Ethnomethodology 2 > Part 2 | Collecting Video Data
  • Week 4 > Ethnomethodology 2 > Part 3 | Informed Consent
  • Week 4 > Ethnomethodology 2 > Part 4 | Transcript
  • Week 4 > Practice for Homework 3-3 Peer Assessment > Instruction

Week 4 > Ethnomethodology 2 > Part 1 | Homework 2 Review

  • Okay, the question was this: Does he exhibit that “Yes” completed his answer to the question? He said, “Oh yes.” But, answering “Yes” this way is not a strong evidence for suggesting that he understood that this answer was enough.
  • Right after he said, “a little,” and before the chef asks the next question, he looks to his left where there is nothing but other customers.
  • At least we observe that he needed some more information and could not answer the question without some hint.
  • He exhibited his understanding that he has given a sufficient answer to the question, although he also exhibited the uncertainty regarding that answer.
  • The chef replies with “What do you want to have.” This shows that the chef’s understanding that the customer’s answer was not enough to his question.
  • At least, what we can observe is that he needed to ask the question and could not complete the order-taking at this moment.
  • The chef then starts “Well, we have whitefish, raw squid.” Now, the question is how we can understand this 0.4 second pause.
  • The chef is heard to have finished his question because “What do you want to have” with the period indicates that he stated it in a downward intonation.
  • If a question is issued, then the next action that is expected is the answer by the customer.
  • More specifically, we can observe that he had trouble answering the question.
  • This question is easier for the customer because the chef is effectively providing possible answers to the question.
  • By this chef’s elaborated question, we can observe that the chef is exhibiting his understanding that he needed to redo the question in an easier format.
  • We can suggest that it is the chef’s understanding that the customer had trouble answering the question.
  • The chefs test customers by posing a difficult question and see how the customers would respond.

Week 4 > Ethnomethodology 2 > Part 2 | Collecting Video Data

  • For research purposes, consumer grade camcorders are good enough.
  • Particularly, good digital cameras can record video in an excellent quality.
  • If you want to record data in a reliable way, I recommend to use camcorders.
  • You need to record in a low light setting.
  • Our camcorders could not reproduce the image in sufficient details.
  • There are some camcorders’ accessories that we need.
  • Some of these batteries have the capacity for over 6 hours of recording time.
  • We also use clamps to attach camcorders on various parts.
  • Recent camcorders have quite good viewing angles without such attachment.
  • We also use wireless microphones so that we can capture audio at some distance.
  • When we videotape the whole scene of an interaction from a few meters away, we can put these wireless microphones on the people.
  • We also use 360 degree lens, like this, that we can attach to camcorders.
  • The audio is more important than the visual for our research purposes.
  • Instead of using compressed audio such as AAC and MP3, it is better to use Linear PCM. Sometimes, we use super high quality recorders like this.
  • We use a number of voice recorders when we collect data.
  • Typically, we put a voice recorder on each participant and then extra voice recorders on the table.
  • We use lavalier microphones like this that we can attach closer to the mouth.
  • Sometimes these clip style lavalier microphones do not work, though.
  • Bartenders move a lot and the microphones on the chest will capture many friction noises.
  • As shown here, we hold a handheld camcorder and follow a participant.
  • The other is fixed set where we set up camcorders on tripods.
  • For audio, ask a participant that you shadow to wear a lavalier microphone.
  • The wireless microphone with the clip can be useful.
  • When we shadowed customers in apparel shops, we used this clip wireless microphone so that we can take it off when the customers tried clothes on.
  • To make sure that you are actually getting the audio, plug a headphone into the camcorder.
  • For fixed set, use several camcorders on tripods If your camcorders do not have enough viewing angle, you may want to use wide angle lenses.
  • Again, even though you can capture the audio by the camera, ask each participant to wear a lavalier microphone and plug it into a voice recorder.
  • We also put backup voice recorders at various locations for a peace of mind.
  • For these voice recorders, we usually set the microphone sensitivity at low so that we can capture the local voices and avoid crosstalks.
  • Use redundant methods to capture audio so that if there is a problem with one, you always have a backup.
  • When you use multiple voice recorders, I recommend to number each recorder and then, write down which one is used where, because it will be cumbersome to locate a proper audio clip once you come back to the lab.
  • This program analyzes the audio waveform and synchronize data using the audio waveforms.

Week 4 > Ethnomethodology 2 > Part 4 | Transcript

  • I also want to explain how to transcribe interactions.
  • You have already seen transcripts but here, I want to take some time to go through the process.
  • Because you can do so competently, you can’t typically examine it in detail such as the timing of talks and gestures.
  • We master conversations too well to notice and explain its detailed mechanics.
  • We use transcripts that show details of the interaction.
  • This can already show how the interaction took place.
  • If you recall the analysis we reviewed, it does not show some of the details that we needed to analyze the data.
  • This latch indicates that there is no gap between the turns.
  • This lacks some more details needed for analysis.
  • Let’s add some prolongation of sound and pace of talk.
  • If you have a longer prolongation, then you add more colons.
  • The “Greater than” and “Less than” signs indicate slower and faster pace.
  • To complete the transcript, we can add some more.
  • H h h” indicates inhaling breath that we can hear.
  • Double parentheses indicate the author’s remarks that were not observable but useful to understand the interactions.
  • The inverted question mark indicates the upward intonation shifting to downward.
  • In addition to what we have seen, the underlining indicates that the speaker stressed the sound.
  • I will walk you through each time we’ll use a transcript.

Week 4 > Practice for Homework 3-3 Peer Assessment > Instruction

  • In “Your Response” step, after reading the practice question carefully, you should provide your response in “Enter your response to the question above:” textbox.
  • After submitting your response, in the “Learn to Assess Responses” step, you will be presented with a sample response from the instructor as well as a peer’s response to the same practice question.
  • “Does your peer’s response to this question capture the important points? And 2.”Does your peer’s response to this question capture the additional points? These two questions require you to judge your peer’s response for any instances of important points and additional points stated in the instructor’s sample response.
  • You should select one of the three checkbox options: “Good,” “Satisfactory,” or “Needs improvement.” That is to say, if your peer response contains all of the important points as stated in the instructor’s sample response, we would suggest that you select the checkbox option “Good.” If it only partially contains the important points, select the checkbox “Satisfactory.” And of course, if it does not capture any of the important points at all, select the checkbox “Needs improvement.” You should do the same for the additional points as stated in the instructor’s sample response.
  • The instructor’s sample response to the practice question that captures the important points is as follows: “Before speaking to the customer, the employee observes the customer from behind while working on clothes.” And accordingly, a sample response that covers the additional points is this: “She observes that the customer has been holding up an item for an extended period of time when the employee starts talking to the customer.” Here are some other example responses that are somewhat different from the instructor’s sample response.
  • The response “Needs improvement” on the additional points as it fails to mention “The customer is holding up an item for an extended period of time.” The second example response is: “The employee was waiting for the customer to become interested in one particular item.” This response does not cover the important points, as it does not mention about employee’s action of “Working on clothes” or “Observing the customer from behind.” Therefore, it deserves “Needs improvement” on the important points.

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