When different devices/sensors are connected to each other they can form what is known as a sensor network (and usually formed by some type of wireless communications).
The sensor network are often also connected to other systems, other networking systems (e.g. smart grid, autonomous vehicles, smart buildings, smart bridges etc), and this hybrid network could be used for city planning.
We need to know what the application for sensors is and how deployment must take place in order to provide a certain level of fidelity of what you want to do as well as cost issues?
One reason why many sensor systems are equipped with solar panels or renewable energy devices because changing batteries is oftentimes difficult or expensive to do.
Broad range of video applications showing how useful video is as an urban technology, with significant beneficial impact on society.
Video processing digests information, make decisions and can lead to actions in many areas.
These areas include public safety, effectiveness and cost of law enforcement, fuel consumption, air pollution, quality of life measures, such as traffic congestion and drive times, and road conditions, such as icy, snowy, wet, and potholes.
Roadway video surveillance is beginning to play a larger role in preventing accidents, identifying and reducing reckless driving behavior, and recovering lost persons.
Example: in UK, in vicinity of speed detection cameras, accident reduction range from 8% to 49% for all crashes, and 11% to 44% for fatal and serious injury crashes.
Other uses: on-street parking management systems, detect slipperiness of a patch of road, detect uneven temperature when paving roads during construction etc
LiDAR is a remote sensing technology – a laser light is shot out into the urban environment, and the time it takes to reach an object and return is measured – that helps capture and create a map of the city.
LiDAR can be used in many ways in a city environment.
For example, ground-level LiDAR collection creates a precise 3D model it can shoot
millions of points per minute, and extract all kinds of information about assets from roadsigns, billboards, awnings, potholes, construction sites, debris.
Broadband planning and broadband connectivity need to be considered as we plan cities and regions.
Unlike other infrastructure like roads, water, and sewer, broadband infrastructure is often under private ownership, and planners have not generally been involved with broadband professionals the way they routinely work with civil engineers and public works department.
The American Planning Association is increasingly addressing broadband needs in the 21st century, and planners need to put in place a broadband strategic plan.
All types of community plans whether they are comprehensive plans, downtown plans, tax increment finance plans, should have a statement that broadband is critical infrastructure.
The comprehensive plan should add a minimum reference free plan and include policies that coordinate the comprehensive plan objectives with broadband planning goals.
The plan should state that the broadband services must be reliable, there should be redundant networks, and they must be competitive in terms of the speeds that are available and the cost to access those services.
“Dig Once” policies should be included in the policy documents – as planners know, it is more cost efficient to install infrastructure during road construction projects, than to go back and tear it up later.
It is the planner’s job to represent the voice of those who may have overlooked when designing broadband networks.