Class 4: Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work

Class 4: Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work

“What Occupations are Growing … Emerging forms of work/organizations … Uber Case Study … Interview with Jianming Zhou and Ryder Pearce, Co-Founders of Sherpashare … Technology and the Future of Work: Interview with Erik Brynjolfsson … Entrepreneurship and Good Jobs: Interviews with Barbara Dyer and Scott Stern … MIT Technology Conference with Meryam Bukhari”
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Summaries

  • Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > Week 4 Intro > Video
  • Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > What Occupations are Growing > Video: What Occupations are Growing?
  • Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > Emerging forms of work/organizations > Video:
  • Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > Uber Case Study > Video
  • Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > Interview with Jianming Zhou and Ryder Pearce, Co-Founders of Sherpashare >
  • Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > Technology and the Future of Work: Interview with Erik Brynjolfsson > Video
  • Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > Entrepreneurship and Good Jobs: Interviews with Barbara Dyer and Scott Stern > Video
  • Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > MIT Technology Conference with Meryam Bukhari > Video

Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > Week 4 Intro > Video

  • What a busy week we had. Because we covered so much ground this past week and because we’re almost at the midpoint of this course, I thought it would be useful to summarize some of the key lessons from the week and really one of the key lessons from this course.
  • It is that our economies need to continue to encourage and grow what we call high road firms that are both good for shareholders and for employees if we are really to shape the future of work that works for all the stakeholders in our economy.
  • You endorsed firms that should be accountable to multiple stakeholders, to employees, to societies, as well as to their investors and their owners.
  • There was a point in time when we recognized and that CEOs recognized that they need to have organizations that address both the interests of the people who invest in them, who own them, but also they were held accountable to their employees, to their communities, and societies.
  • Instead, what we saw is that there’s a bundle of practices, or what we call a system of practices, of employment practices, operational features of the organization, business practices that have to fit together and be fitted to the particular industries and particular organizational settings, particular cultures and countries in which they are embedded.
  • That, yes, it starts by hiring good, strong employees who have good technical skills and good people in organizational skills so they can work together in teams and communicate with each other.
  • Then we invest in training and development and make sure that we create a culture of respect and trust at the workplace.
  • Then recognize that you all want good, flexible organizational arrangements that allow you to mix your personal and your family and your work lives, but to do it in creative ways with modern technology, with fair wages that are linked, in some ways, to productivity, to performance, to the economy of your organizations.
  • We know that this can happen not only in traditional profit-making firms or public corporations, but we discussed a whole range of different organizational forms- family businesses like Market Basket, public corporations, as we mentioned, benefit corporations like Patagonia, employee-owned firms like my two favorite breweries, New Belgium and Harpoon, or in other countries, IDEO in Sweden and around the world.
  • Then my favorite football team, the Green Bay Packers, owned by the community and maintaining long-standing good relationships with their stakeholders and their environments.
  • I was particularly excited and pleased with the examples of high road and low road firms that you talked about in your own assignments this week.
  • Here’s just an example of firms in the retail industry- a family-owned firm, Wegmans.
  • Whole Foods, which is known very well, was used as an example and compared with some other organizations, one well known and another one where we just disguised the name a bit in another country that talked about the low wages and lack of a living wage, not particularly paying attention to employee training and development.
  • Also noting that even in government agencies, you had some very low road firms or organizations that favored their certain employees and didn’t provide the kind of feedback and opportunities for growth.
  • So we’ll continue them with some really good videos and guest interviews and material from people all over the world, talking about how we can use technology to augment work, not just to substitute for work or displace work.
  • As entrepreneurs, what do we need to do to make sure that we understand what it takes to have a good business model, to be responsive to the investors who are providing the capital for these firms, but also to make sure that we make the choices about how we build good jobs and careers for all of the employees in these new enterprises.

Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > What Occupations are Growing > Video: What Occupations are Growing?

  • Heidi follows the job trends and occupational opportunities around the country.
  • I wonder if you could start by telling us what do you see as some of the good job opportunities for young people entering the labor force today? I think it’s important to know that there are a lot of good jobs being created.
  • If you look, our Bureau of Labor Statistics does these employment projections, where you can look and see what kind of jobs are growing strongly for the next 10 years, what kind of wages will those jobs have.
  • So some of the fastest growing jobs are jobs in the health sector, particularly nurses- really strong wages and really strong job growth.
  • You also see projected growth in some jobs in professional and business services like accountant jobs and auditing jobs, sort of those old standbys.
  • We’re going to always need them, and they’re really decent paying jobs.
  • Those kinds of jobs that historically people got a lot of training in those kind of jobs through their unions and apprenticeship programs.
  • One of the things the Department of Labor is doing is really doing everything we can to support apprenticeship programs so they can help train up people to get into those jobs, because those are really good middle class jobs that are going to be very in demand going forward.
  • What about at the lower end of the occupational distribution? The projections show that we are expected to add a lot of jobs that, at this point, are low wage jobs: home health aides, food prep workers in restaurants and bars, child care workers, janitors, maids and housekeeping cleaners.
  • So some of these lower end jobs are projected to see strong growth going forward.
  • That’s where policy can come in to help make sure that those are better jobs.
  • Those kinds of policies can help ensure that we have high quality jobs for people at all levels of education and training.
  • Certainly important that we really help to improve those low wage jobs and provide career opportunities for growth, and so on.
  • What else would you say that young people need to do to prepare for the good jobs of the future? Thinking about investments in your own training and education over the course of your career is a really smart idea.

VClass 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > Emerging forms of work/organizations > Video: 

  • People often came into a company without very much experience at all and expected to work their way up through promotions over time.
  • The trade off of job security, of having a stable career with a predictable career trajectory was often the risk of boredom and monotonous work.
  • There wasn’t very much diversity, and there were very sizable gaps in pay based on gender and race.
  • With the rise of the knowledge economy moreover- an economy that encourages ideas and creativity and innovation- workers are being given more discretion in how they go about their work and even the types of projects on which they work.
  • Some organizations are even trying to make themselves look and feel as non-corporate-y as possible as a way to attract and retain talent, and there’s evidence that this can be good for the bottom line.
  • Due in large part to advances in information technology, new technology mediated work arrangements are becoming more popular and facilitating various forms of freelance work.
  • Various new websites and applications are springing up throughout the economy that connect people- buyers and sellers- in unique and innovative ways.
  • For example, there’s companies like freelancer.com where someone can go on and post a project, for example, solicit help coding a new website, and people will bid on those projects.
  • Care.com, where people can locate, for example, house and pet sitters for when they are away.
  • There are common reoccurring disadvantages to these modes of work as well.
  • You don’t know whether you’ll have work from one month to the next.
  • When I hired this coder to help me with this freelancing project, he was competing against people located in China and India.
  • There’s isolation, a lack of pension and retirement, lack of paid vacation and time off, the need for continuous learning that can accommodate the diverse and changing needs of employers, and needing to finance the education out of your own pocket.
  • Many of these employees lack the protections that are traditionally afforded to workers under more stable employment contracts.

Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > Uber Case Study > Video

  • Unlike cab drivers, Uber drivers use their own car.
  • Early on, Uber and companies like it were seen as offering a new and very exciting way to work.
  • Uber claimed early on that the median salary for a driver working at least 40 hours a week in New York City was $50,000 a year.
  • The critical issue is how these drivers are classified, whether they’re employees or independent contractors.
  • The legal distinction has important implications for drivers experiences and protections.
  • Uber refers to its drivers as partners, but Uber does not consider its drivers employees.
  • Uber retains full control over the base rates that drivers can charge.
  • There are reports that UberX drivers, UberX being the most commonly used, lowest cost service, make only a little bit more than traditional cab drivers.
  • Uber drivers can be fired automatically by a computer if their passenger rating falls below a 4.6 on a scale from one to five.
  • Uber doesn’t tell it’s passengers how the ratings might affect drivers employment.
  • A passenger might reasonably assume therefore that a four star rating is pretty good, but actually four stars could nudge a driver below a 4.6.
  • Analyzes, and profits from a wealth of driver data, but is guarded about which data are shared back with drivers.
  • In some states, drivers are trying to organize and collectively bargain.
  • These drivers face a difficult road ahead because US law does not require Uber to negotiate.
  • Because Uber considers these drivers independent contractors, not employees.
  • The city of Seattle acted on its own recently and passed a law that enabled Uber drivers to organize and negotiate for better conditions.
  • Helps Uber drivers manage their earnings and job related expenses and also connects them with similar workers in their area.
  • So the question that I would pose to you as a class is, what do you recommend that Uber drivers do to improve their employment circumstances? For one thing, do you think our current policies are sufficient for on demand workers? If not, how might they be improved? How might worker sided technology, such as SherpaShare, also improve the experiences for these workers? “.

Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > Interview with Jianming Zhou and Ryder Pearce, Co-Founders of Sherpashare >

  • It works in the ride service business, and it provides services both to drivers and to other people companies interested in this business.
  • We basically offer them to access- basically offer them an independent and neutral platform to access information, utility, and work opportunities to maximize their work.
  • What led you to do it? The fundamental reason is we see there’s a fundamental conflict between on-demand services and the workers And the workers are typically working for multiple services, and they have growing challenges to manage their work, and understand that there are all other work options.
  • So who do you define as your customers for your services? So typically it’s been ride share drivers is who we’ve started with.
  • Those typically, Uber, Lyft, formerly Sidecar, and delivery companies as well although we’d like to expand to other independent drivers.
  • Tell me more about how that works and why you’re positioning Sherpa share in this kind of middle category? What do each of the different stakeholders get from your Services Yeah so, as I said, like most workers actually working for multiple services, so because they are working for multiple services, they need tools to manage your earnings from different sources, check their personal expenses understand that their tax liability, and navigate increasingly more working options.
  • Yeah, for example, so that the workers don’t have loyalty, as J.Z. Said, and so workers who need a place where they can manage their multiple work options and also communicate with each other and exchange information.
  • If I’m a driver, what do I do? How do I get access to it? What will I learn by using your app? Yeah also it’s actually- have a mobile app.
  • Now since [INAUDIBLE] focus on the drivers, so the biggest expense for them actually is mileage.
  • We also have so-called heat map, which is across map, and show where the hot spot for the drivers in real time.
  • So when we launched the chat in our existing app we found that, drivers- it was a strong need for drivers to communicate with each other, to ask questions, to give status updates.
  • When does the game get out? And so last week, we launched a new app dedicated to basically allowing drivers to exchange information.
  • When I came in this morning, I posted something saying, hey, we’re going to be in Boston talking about driver issues, anything you want to talk about? And we had several drivers right away respond, a couple the points where repeat- Uber should add tips for drivers, so that was one that drivers And tips.
  • A few others, basically saying that drivers want to communicate more.
  • So if companies can do more or if we can do more to help drivers communicate, it’s a strong lead. That’s very interesting that drivers are- they operate independently, separately, they’re all in their own vehicle, And so on.
  • Yeah, there’s like two fundamental needs drivers need.
  • Do you know if this creates any social networking where people drivers actually physically get together, and form communities or is it all online? Both, actually.
  • Traditional employment of course, had lunch, break, the break room, the water cooler which doesn’t exist for the drivers.
  • We do see in some cities where there are a lot of drivers, the drivers will coordinate.
  • Drivers can organize whatever they want, whether that’s discussions or offline meet-ups.
  • Well let’s talk more specifically about the drivers and how they are doing, financially.
  • What are you hearing from drivers? What can you say about how they are doing financially now, and over time? Yeah the biggest thing we found at a fundamental level was a lot of these drivers are first time independent workers.
  • Drivers didn’t have a good sense of what their actual net earnings was.
  • Another issue we saw was that basically drivers didn’t know how to optimize, their work, and so there’s a couple things that we’ve helped them with.
  • That’s in the range of- they might make a couple hundred dollars more, in addition to full time work What do you hear from the drivers themselves? What would they like SherpaShare to do? They will definitely like- always want to make more money.
  • What’s your revenue model? How do you survive, and you have investors know as a startup organization, but you are a for profit business? So what’s the model for generating revenue? Yeah, so we are an intermediate layer between the on-demand services and workers.
  • So we’re also a layer between workers and, other work related services, and worker and consumer, right.
  • So marketing opportunities for companies, and pay for services, from drivers, for more premium kind of information and material.
  • So an example of that would be what’s most valuable to drivers now is tracking mileage, because that’s a direct number they can look at and use for a tax direction, and so that’s something where a lot of other utility services charge for, and drivers are willing to pay for.
  • The company side, they’ll see that there’s a network of drivers who have a certain level of experience in this space.
  • Of course, they’re interested in both acquiring those drivers and then once they’ve acquired them, convincing them to work on a certain day.
  • Yeah, so in some respects, you can be a recruiting agency, or help them to identify the pool of potential drivers for them.
  • So that’s a really important service because that must be very difficult, what do you find is- how stable are these drivers? How long do they stay? Do they turn over a lot? What’s your experience telling you? There’s a natural turn for this industry.
  • It’s a question of when is the next phase of their life where they’ll need supplemental income? So it could be students is a good example, where students will- on our way over here we had an Uber driver who was also a full time student, and a full time driver.
  • He fits in his driving when he’s a student, but after he’s done, after he graduates, he’ll probably find a full time job and scale back on the driving.
  • Then the other end is when people are older, and they have more free time, they’ll also become drivers as well.
  • Concerns on some chat rooms and various online linking mechanisms that Uber doesn’t really care about the drivers.
  • What are you hearing? Where are you positioned? Do you hear these kinds of things? Do you see them as credible? What’s your view of some of the critiques of this industry at the moment? I think some concerns are true in some degree, and we are kind of happy that we see some other groups supporting workers as well, and we are honored to be a very important channel for drivers to voice out their concerns.
  • So currently we are only focused on the driver vertical only US bucket, but we want to expand to other verticals and other regions as well.
  • The ultimate vision, I’m thinking, is it’s more like a- drivers say, I have eight hours for work.

Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > Technology and the Future of Work: Interview with Erik Brynjolfsson > Video

  • We’re speaking today with Eric Brynjolfsson, a professor here at MIT Sloan School of Management, the director of the MIT Initiative on the Digital Economy, and co-author of a bestselling book, The Second Machine Age, a book that really has gotten the conversation going about how important today’s digital economy is, how the technologies that are coming along are going to have an enormous effect on the future of work.
  • Well, you know, technologies make a huge difference in the living standards of people.
  • What those technologies really did was they augmented and automated a lot of muscle power from humans and animals to machines.
  • That’s at least as profound a difference as what the steam engine and, later, the internal combustion engine and other technologies did for our muscles.
  • Tell us a little bit about how technologies affect work in what ways- in positive ways, in negative ways- and then we can go on from there.
  • So we have to keep sight of that, that basically these are technologies that create more abundance, more wealth.
  • It’s possible for some people to be made worse off.
  • There’s no economic reason that you couldn’t have a majority of people be made worse off, even as other people get much, much better.
  • How do you see these technologies affecting work in the future? Well, the technologies continue to advance, and they continue to affect different kinds of jobs.
  • It turns out that the people who do those jobs are typically in the middle of the income distribution, and what they’ve seen is that as machines get better at those tasks, there’s less demand for humans to do the identical tasks.
  • At the same time, there’s been growth in job opportunities at the other ends of the spectrum, what David Autor and other people call job polarization.
  • At the high end, you get creative people or entrepreneurs are making, in some cases, more money than ever before.
  • People who can sing well or who can invent new businesses, as entrepreneurs, many kinds of scientists, artists, if you’re a great writer or write books, those are things that are probably more valuable now than before.
  • We still connect with other people a lot better, and we will for some time.
  • I would encourage people to work harder at developing those kinds of skills.
  • Let’s talk a bit about the people who are designing these technologies.
  • How can we encourage more technological design that complements work, that utilizes these skills, that thinks about ways to enhance them or to work with them to drive productivity and economic performance? Well, I’m glad you asked that question, because most people don’t even get as far as asking that question.
  • I think there’s a widespread assumption out there that technology just happens, and there’s nothing you can do to shape the path of it.
  • The reality is that you can encourage people to have technologies that create more inclusive innovation, that helps people more broadly, or that mostly focuses on substituting for people, for that matter.
  • We, as a society and as individuals, can shape the direction of technology to quite a significant extent.
  • If two entrepreneurs come up with a billion-dollar idea, and one of them involves employing lots of people and one of them doesn’t, our current tax system will put more taxes on the one that employs more people, and that’s probably not we want to do.
  • So we could rejigger the tax system to tax the things that we don’t want more, and then we’ll have less of them, and lower the taxes, or even subsidize, work.
  • Another kind of thing we could do is just recognize reward and motivate people.
  • One of the things that I’ve learned over the past few years is how much people can be motivated by having a prize and a goal in front of them.
  • Why don’t we try to reward and motivate business leaders and economists to reinvent the businesses and economy the same way that technologists have been reinventing the technology? And in fact, here at MIT, we’re launching something called the Inclusive Innovation Competition, which is designed specifically to recognize those business models that use technology to create broad, shared prosperity.
  • It’s just getting launched, but we think this is going to be a good way to recognize and highlight people who have done that.
  • I think that’s a great idea, and I hope that it creates a lot of attention, and that we get lots of people really thinking along these ways, because I think it’s the genius of people- using technologies to address important problems that will help make progress.
  • Why don’t we encourage people who are doing it in a way that does create this shared prosperity? So let me ask this final question, because it’s obviously on everybody’s mind.
  • That’s an issue on people’s mind today.
  • How do you think about that problem, given all of the innovation that’s going on and that could come down the road? Well, down the road, I could certainly imagine technology creating kind of a Star Trek economy.
  • What we’re seeing recently, as I touched on earlier, is that mix is changing in a way that a lot of people are being made worse off, and other people are being made much better off.
  • We want to also give people the skills and education so they can adapt to the new kinds of jobs that are available.
  • The technology will march on, and we shouldn’t try to stop the technology.
  • In the earlier industrial revolutions, when the steam engine and other technologies came along, we adapted our institutions.
  • We invented social security and a whole bunch of other policies that helped smooth that transition to a new kind of work force and cushioned the people who otherwise would have been left behind.
  • We have more powerful tools now than we ever had before, and that means we have more power to shape the future than we ever did before.
  • Well, Eric, I think that’s a really important message, and one that I’m delighted that we can deliver in this class and in other settings where people can really make a difference.

 

  • The foundation works with entrepreneurs to build both good companies that are financially successful, as well as ones that provide good job opportunities.
  • Can entrepreneurs build a good job strategy creating good opportunities for the full workforce in from the beginning? So I think one of the greatest misconceptions is that being a good entrepreneur and building a company that really scales is actually in opposition to building a company that creates great jobs.
  • If everyone who shows up to your company is simply, all it is about cost, well there’s not much of a company at all.
  • What we’ve observed at the nearly 100 companies that we’ve looked at across health care and manufacturing is at the businesses that create great quality jobs don’t begin with the premise that this is a good HR strategy.
  • Successful venture capitalists who have built successful companies, they meaningfully talk about the great organizations they’ve built.
  • There should be no expectation of salary increases or benefits because the company hasn’t started generating a profit.
  • You know that the research tells us that if you build into the DNA of a company from the very start this kind of commitment, this kind of strategy, it’ll be the driving framework for the company over time.
  • He ultimately decided that the strength and the quality and the innovations of his company could best be made by investing in employees.
  • As that company has grown, all of a sudden they are the single most visible and single most memorable and single best advocates for the company as it scaled across the United States.
  • The idea was to enable primarily immigrant, but other women and men, who have an ethnic bread to take that to the market, to create real economic opportunity through baking bread, and to enable them to build their own businesses around their particular craft.
  • One company, Rebound, is a remarkable refrigeration company that has the potential of saving supermarkets enormous amount of money in refrigeration costs and dramatically reducing the amount of CO2.
  • The founder of that company is eager to build a business that is focused on good people, great jobs, pathways of upward mobility.
  • It’s who he is, it’s where he wants to take his company.
  • When you think about joining a company, when you think about- say you’re in a big company thinking about which kind of companies to partner with- when you think about, even as an investor, make sure you’re having that conversation, and understanding as you’re selecting among different groups to work with, different firms to work with, even different portfolio companies to invest in, go one layer beyond the simple value creation, value capture logic, and get to the organization and the team.
  • You are more likely to be investing in a long-term play that really delivers fundamental value and really delivers strong returns if you’re investing in the kind of company that people are going to be attracted to and allows people to nurture and grow.
  • Well Scott, I think this is an important message for entrepreneurs, for investors, and for young people who really do want to build great companies that address big problems in society, that are successful, and that provide good jobs and career opportunities to their peers.

Class 4: New Emerging Models-New Firms,New Jobs,New Technology,and the Future of Work > MIT Technology Conference with Meryam Bukhari > Video

  • Over the past three years, there have been significant innovations in big data, database architecture, and artificial intelligence, that are enabling new business models and products.
  • In simplest terms, the innovations in artificial intelligence are equipping algorithms to make smarter decisions about tasks and problems that have, so far, been thought only to be reserved for humans.
  • The accompanying innovations, and cheapening of hardware, that enables artificial intelligence algorithms to read and process incredibly large data sets, has motivated more entrepreneurs, and technologists, to innovate with artificial intelligence.
  • Similar to how the Industrial Revolution displaced many workers through the creation of tech that was cheaper and overall more efficient than people.
  • People believe that AI will replace, not just blue collar workers, but also white collar workers.
  • The fact is that the impact on workers is under our control, the control of entrepreneurs, technologists, and everyday citizens, that are part of the workforce.
  • Business owners and workers can harness AI to augment human intelligence in the workplace to creatively improve decision making instead of replacing it.
  • So what specific type of disruptions can we expect AI to cause for employers and employees? Let’s take a look at what David Autor, a professor of economics at MIT, said in the Future of Work panel at the Nobel Week Dialogue of 2015.
  • In terms of employment, as was said earlier, people have been worried for centuries about displacement of labor.
  • You know, I can make more as an Uber driver than as a rickshaw driver, not just because I’m in a rich world, but because I have a tool that makes me able to transport people much faster and further, and more safely, and more comfortably, in a given amount of time.
  • In addition to changing the kinds of roles that workers can take on in the workplace, AI-based innovation can also impact social inequality, for better or worse, to be determined by how we choose to behave.
  • Women and people of color are very under-represented among technology entrepreneurs that receive funding from venture capitalists for their enterprises.
  • I think it’s because we’re missing that confidence, and the passion to go forward, and want to dream big.
  • Actually, I think that they have more faith and confidence in me than I do myself, which is amazing.
  • I think I have had to, maybe, guide and teach some of my VCs and other people in the world what’s important.
  • It’s not always just about- I think we were talking earlier about the end goal of the business, and growing the business- but creating a sustainable company is also about the culture and the people.
  • We don’t have people leave, and it’s because they feel supported and heard, and they can also be creative and do amazing things in the work that we’re providing.
  • Then two hours into the conversation, he’s like, well, what do you do there? And he’s like, are you in marketing? And I was like, no, I’m the CEO.
  • Income and social inequality between genders will not improve unless we choose to make fairer decisions about who gets opportunities to create and run companies in the tech industry.
  • If we do not actively monitor our biases, we will not be able to take advantage of this period of innovation and wealth creation towards a more equitable future.
  • There is also an opportunity gap among people for who gets to work within companies in the tech industry.
  • Leila Janah, founder and CEO of Sama Group, an organization that lifts people out of poverty by enabling them to do work in the digital economy, discusses this opportunity gap, and how we can mitigate it.
  • Now interestingly, traditionally, in the informal sector, if you’re doing, say construction work, and you go and you find your job by standing on the side of the road and waiting for someone to hire you as a labor contractor, there is no such thing as getting rewarded for good work.
  • So I think that technology actually brings a lot more transparency in areas like wages, and reviews, and feedback, that are very good for low income workers.
  • I’ll say one last thing on this, which is that, David and I were talking about this just before the panel, we so often assume that technology has some kind of morality built into it.
  • We are still training people for jobs that are disappearing at an alarming rate.
  • We are not training them in how to be entrepreneurial and marketing themselves.
  • You’re absolutely right, that many low income people- And just to give you an idea of how profound this is, in the US we have one of our centers which is less than a mile from the Facebook headquarters in Silicon Valley, in East Palo Alto.
  • Fully 25% of our incoming class for one of our trainings last year had people who had zero internet access at home, and no smartphone.
  • So we can talk all we want about how technology is going to make everyone’s lives better, but the reality is that many people are disconnected.
  • If you didn’t grow up having the internet at home, how can you possibly understand how to market yourself? It’s not easy to be an autodidact, and to learn how to teach yourself things on YouTube, if you didn’t grow up with the internet.
  • As with other periods of societal change, we, citizens and the government, have to ensure that the opportunities to launch, run, and work, in these new enterprises is made available to all members of society.

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